Vedānta (end of the Vedas) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Hindu philosophy.  It reflects ideas that emerged from the Upanishads and does not stand for a unifying doctrine.

The many sub-traditions rang from dualism to non-dualism on the basis of the Principal Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita.

All Vedanta schools differ in their views regarding

Brahman – the ultimate metaphysical reality,

Ātman and Jivātman, the individual soul or self

Prakriti – the empirical world, ever-changing physical universe, body and matter.

Vedanta is  concerned with the self-realisation of the ultimate nature of reality (Brahman). It teaches that the believer's goal is to transcend the limitations of self-identity and realize one's unity with Brahman. The six major scools are

  • Advaita-Vedanta - ' Vedanta of non-duality '- the identity of (Jiva) Atman, the individual soul, and Brahman, the wordsoul (Shankara)
  • Vishishtadvaita Vedanta ( Advaita with a unique qualification) is a nondualistic school of Vedanta philosophy. It is non-dualism of a qualified whole, in which Brahman alone exists, but is characterized by diversity. It can be described as a qualified monism or attributive monism. God (Vishnu - Narayana) exists as the only one, the plurality of the world as a real manifestation of God is preserved and is not an illusion (Ramanuja)
  • Dvaita - Vada - Vedanta - The Atman is separated from the Brahman forever and not the same as in the Advaita-Vedanta (Madhva, Madhvacharya)
  • Achintya Bhedabheda or Dvaitadvaita (Chaitanya Mahaprabhu): simultaneous unity and diversity of truth
  • Dvaitadvaita vāda (Bhedabheda vada) - 3 categories of existence: cit (individual soul), acit (prakrta, aprakrta, kala) and Ishvara (Nimbarkacharya)
  • Shuddhadvaita - The whole world is God's energy and despite the permanent change real (Vallabha)

== Advaita Vedanta ==


"Brahma satyam jagan mithya, jiva-brahma iva-na param" - the only reaity is Brahman ( Advaita-Vedanta).

Advaita Vedanta was initiated by Adi Sankara and his guru Gaudapada. Shankaracharya relied on the Sampradaya and made some changes to the Sanatana Dharma. He equated all the gods, and taught that every deity was a form of the highest God or Brahman(Ishvara). 

He introduced the Pañcāyatana veneration (Panchayatana-Puja) with the divinities Ganesha, Surya, Vishnu, Shiva and Durga and announced his reformed Advaita teaching.

According to this school, Brahman is the only reality and the material world is an illusion. Unfortunately modern Advaita fails to recognize that  Maya is the material primary substance and not only the creator of the world illusion.

The hinduist transmission happened was mostly oral and mostly by inauguration.
In Hinduism exist numerous interpretations of the "sutras" and of the "upanishades" by wise men who were more studied teachers than selfrealized masters (who seldom wrote big books in the past centuries). So traditional hinduism distinguishes between a brahmin who posesses the abilities of a brahmin and a brahmin who only has the outer schooling of a brahmin.

In some interpretations the brahman is put equal to the atman. But above the atman and at the top of brahman is ISHVARA and above the hiher divine worlds. Often everything above the four (or better 5) lower worlds is normalized as "Brahman".

Shankara taught about the four elements and the Akasha and above them the "Brahman". Above all is the Parabrahman.

Shankara says in the Yoga Sutras-Commentary: "AUM is the name of the highest lord" (equal to: 'Om is the Supreme Brahman' - Svetasvatara Upanishad 1:7).

In Hinduism are terms like Adi Parashakti and Para Brahman not clear defined. The problem is that many authors and gurus give interpretaions of their personal view of things, that happened on their personal path.

First a master of the step 20 of the UNIVERSAL PATH, the fifth big initiation, can see the synthesis of things. Nada or Shabda exist only indirectly in all beings of the 4 lower planes, which have MAYA as their basis, as higher vibrations.

The worldview of Kashmir Shaivism is since Abhinavagupta by far more comprehensive than Advaita Vedanta, and also the later Radhasoami  teaches that hinduism covers only the lower divine planes.

== Citations ==


1. The 'Mundaka Upanishad' says :
(1) Om. Brahma, the creator of the universe and preserver of the world, was the first among the devas. He taught His son Atharva about the Knowledge of the Brahman...
(3) The Atman cannot be attained by study of the Vedas, nor can it be attained through intelligence or through much learning....
(4) It cannot be attained by one who is without strength or earnestness or by one who is is without knowledge together with renunciation. But if a wise uses these aids, his soul enters the Abode of Brahman.
(5) This resplendent and pure Atman, whom the sinless sannyasins behold residing within the body, is attained by unceasing practice of truthfulness, austerity, right knowledge and continence.

2. The Prashna - Upanishad says : "It is true, o Satyakama, the sound AUM is the higher and the lower brahman".
Even Alice Bailey admits, that the "AUM"-Meditation" is more for beginners and has the small disadvantage, that it stimulates the negative forces (U stands for the negative material Aksahas !).

3. The transcendental vibration omkara is the sound form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. All Vedic knowledge and this cosmic manifestation are produced from this sound representation of the Supreme Lord.
-- Chaitanya Charitamrita, Madhya-lila 6:174

4. The Vedic sound vibration omkara, the principle word in the Vedic literatures, is the basis of all Vedic vibrations. Therefore one should accept omkara as the sound representation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the reservoir of the cosmic manifestation.
-- Chaitanya Charitamrita, Adi-lila 7:174

5. The eplaination of "AGNI YOGA" about AUM is therefore false : "U" does not stand for light or for the second ray , etc..

This false interpretation of "U" also exists in some tibetan scools. "U" stands for the material AKASHAS , ie. - Maya and Karma !

6. Kala Hamsa, the "Bird" or Swan (Vide No. 11), says the Nada-Bindu Upanishad ,
"The syllable A is considered to be its (the bird Hamsa's) right wing , U, its left, M , its tail , and the Ardha-matra (half metre) is said to be its head."
Ann.: But it must be said that "Hamsa" is the perishable goose and still not the white atmic swan, the atmic "Soham". The seeker should be careful: An Upanishad is just a secret teaching and not the absolute truth !

7. "Salutations to Omkara, which gives whatever one desires and also liberation to those who meditate always on Omkara that is united with the Bindu."(Guru Stotra)

8. In order to become the KNOWER of ALL SELF, you have first of SELF to be the knower.
To reach the knowledge of that SELF, you have to give up Self to Non-Self, Being to Non-Being and then you can repose between the wings of the GREAT BIRD.
Aye, sweet is rest between the wings of that which is not born, nor dies, but is the AUM throughout eternal ages. Bestride the Bird of Life if you would know. Give up your life, if you will live. (The voice of silence, H. Blavatsky)

9. OM is the supreme symbol of the Lord. OM is the whole, OM affirms; OM signals The chanting of the hymns from the Vedas. The priest begins with OM; spiritual teachers And their students commence with OM. The student who is established in OM Becomes united with the Lord of Love. (Taittiriya Upanishad)

10. 'A perfect path of the Truth has come into being for our journey to the other shore beyond the darkness.' (Rig Veda)

11. AUM. This imperishable word is the universe. It is explained as the past, the present, the future; everything is the word AUM. Also whatever transcends threefold time is AUM. All here is God; this soul is God. This same soul is fourfold.( Mandyuka-Upanishad) ;

== Literature ==


* Swami Vivekananda - VEDANTA, EAN 9783426291832